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Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum
Water Quality - Pollutant Sources and Impacts

Sometimes it is not the concentrations of individual chemicals which cause problems, but rather interactions among them and with the receiving water. These effects are determined through toxicity testing. U.S. EPA has identified 10 common freshwater and marine organisms for use in the test. Among the most common 'lab rats' for toxicity tests are the water flea (Daphnia pulex) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

Fathead Minnow

Fathead Minnow

Water Flea

Water Flea

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